This is a good functional antique signed antique German Krugelstein Microscope with black, brass, and Nickel finishes, in its original case with original optics


about 12 inches high without the drawtube fully extended



Country of manufacture


Category: Microscopy


Offered for sale, this rare microscope arises on an I-shaped pillar from a typical horseshoe-shaped continental foot. The signature appears on the top plate of the parallel linkage fine focusing mechanism. The serial number is on the lower plate as shown in the images.  The limb can incline from the vertical to the horizontal. The substage consists of a cylinder fitted to the underside of the stage to accept either the supplied Abbe condenser with iris diaphragm, or a cylindrical fitting that accepts one of three aperture stops (stops not now present). The distance from the top of the stage is varied simply by pushing or pulling the accessory up or down in the sleeve. The presence of the lensed condenser with iris makes the use of the other form of aperture stops unneccessary. The ‘lateral-C’ limb above the stage allows the fine focus knob to project downward, acting on the parallel linkage fine focus mechanism above. Coarse focus is by diagonal rack and spiral pinion; this is in contrast to some earlier Krugelstein stands which have a straight rack and pinion.  Accessories include the two different condenser fittings, three eyepieces (numbered 2, 3, and 4), and three original objectives (numbered 3,7, and Oel Ims) on a triple nosepiece. These objectives, like others supplied by Krugelstein are of smaller diameter than the RMS standard. The brass optical tube is fitted with nickel-plated drawtube. The gimbaled substage double-sided plane and concave mirror is on a swinging tailpiece, not only allowing oblique illumination, but swinging aside to make removing or adjusting the condenser much easier. The original fruitwood case features red velvet cloth cushions over the wood fittings, and the original magnification card. There is a compartment under the microscope which is empty. . HISTORY RELATING TO R.  KRUGELSTEIN AND FEATURES OF THIS MICROSCOPE: Krugelstein is one of the lesser-known German microscope makers of the late 19th and early 20th century, with stands dating from about 1875 to the early 1900’s. Stands by this firm are rather uncommon. There are no Krugelstein microscopes in the Billings Collection, and most private collectors do not seem to have one. Krugelstein microscopes are known for the downward facing fine focus control inside a <i>C-shaped limb above the stage</i> that curves to the side rather than to the back, as in most microscopes. The downward pointing fine focus is found under the limb above the stage in microscopes by many makers, including Baker (Nelson Model), Sidle (ACME No. 4), and others, but only in Krugelstein models does the limb form a “lateral-C” curve. The parallel linkage fine focus mechanism was apparently invented by Gundlach and/or the Seiberts when they were all working together; it was used by Seibert for many years after Gundlach left for the United States. This type of fine focus was also used by Lietz in Germany and even by Walter Bulloch in the U.S.A. on the Bastin-Bulloch microscope.  Many other German makers used the lateral C form of pillar this way, but apparently only Krugelstein used a lateral C form of <i>Limb rather than pillar</i>. . CONDITION: This rare microscope is in good working condition overall.  There are spotty losses to the gloss black paint finish of the foot and pillar which could easily be repainted.  The lacquer is very good with very subtle wear and faint streaking of finish which is barely visible.  Mechanically and optically it is all functional.   This microscope is quite rare in my experience and would be a fine addition to any antique scientific instrument collection.

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US Scientique

I have been a scientific instrument collector and dealer for over twenty five years. I have a wide variety of instruments for sale, including globes, orreries, and especially microscopes and related items. I also have a collection of meteorites for sale. I have a detailed knowledge of the history of many of my instruments and maintain an informational website (www.microscope-antiques.com) open to the public which, although it will include all types instruments, currently concentrates on microscopes. I am a member of the Quekett Microscopical Society and The Microscopical Society of Southern California. I have contributed numerous articles to the Journal of the latter, and have also written articles about orreries published in the Journal 'Rittenhouse,' the American Scientific Instrument Society Journal. Many other additional original articles I have written about microscopes and their history, can be found on my web site at www.microscope-antiques.com/articles.html. I have been a meteorite collector for decades and all of my meteorites are guaranteed to be absolutely authentic.

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